Punnett Square

During sexual reproduction, a parent is equally likely to pass on to its offspring either of the two alleles it has at each genetic locus. This makes it possible to list and estimate the probability of specific genotypes being produced from the pairing of two individuals. Given two allele from each parent, four allele combinations are possible. These combinations and their probabilities can be readily visualized using a Punnett square.

Alleles, Genotype and Phenotype

Genetics is the study of the organization, expression and transfer of heritable information. The ability for information to pass from generation to generation requires a mechanism. Living organisms use DNA. DNA is a chain, or polymer, of nucleic acids. Individual polymers of DNA can contain hundreds of millions of individual nucleic acids molecules. These long DNA strands are called chromosomes. Information is contained in the order of the individual nucleic acids that make up the DNA polymer. The use of DNA as the information molecule is a universal property of all life on Earth.

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